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Hollier v Rambler Motors – 1972

March 05, 2024
Micheal James

Jurisdiction / Tag(s): UK Law


The 1972 case of Hollier v Rambler Motors stands as a pivotal decision in contract law, raising crucial questions about consumer protection and fairness in the application of exclusion clauses. Mr. Hollier’s car was damaged by fire while being repaired by the garage, despite the absence of a signed document referencing an exclusion clause included in previous transactions. The central legal issue revolved around whether the previous “course of dealing” established an implicit agreement to the clause, potentially limiting the garage’s liability.

Facts of the Case

Mr. Hollier had used the defendant garage’s services several times over five years, signing invoices containing an exclusion clause for fire damage. However, no such document was signed on the occasion of the car fire incident. Mr. Hollier sued the garage for negligence, claiming they were responsible for the damage.

Legal Issue

The case pitted two competing policy concerns against each other:

  • Consumer protection: Did the lack of a signed document and Mr. Hollier’s unawareness of the clause during this specific transaction render the exclusion clause inapplicable, protecting him as a consumer?
  • Clarity and predictability for businesses: Should previous dealings establish an implicit acceptance of terms, allowing businesses to rely on standardized clauses without constant re-signing for each transaction?

Arguments of the Parties

  • Mr. Hollier:
    • Emphasized the absence of a signed document for this specific transaction, arguing he couldn’t be bound by an assumed agreement he wasn’t aware of.
    • Highlighted the potential unfairness of holding consumers liable based on implicit understandings from past transactions.
  • Rambler Motors:
    • Argued the established course of dealing, with Mr. Hollier previously signing similar documents, demonstrated his tacit acceptance of the exclusion clause.
    • Stressed the need for clarity and predictability in business practices, allowing them to rely on standard terms established in previous interactions.

Judgment and Rationale

The court sided with Mr. Hollier, finding the exclusion clause inapplicable in this instance:

  • They emphasized the importance of a clear and express agreement, especially regarding limitations on liability.
  • The lack of a signed document on this occasion outweighed the previous course of dealing, preventing an implicit assumption of acceptance.
  • The court balanced the competing policy concerns, prioritizing consumer protection against potential ambiguity in the absence of a formal agreement.

Impact of the Case

The decision had a significant impact on consumer protection:

  • Established a stricter requirement for businesses to obtain explicit agreement for exclusion clauses, particularly in each individual transaction.
  • Sent a message that previous dealings alone may not be sufficient to bind consumers to limitations on liability in the absence of clear and present consent.
  • However, the case also highlighted the ongoing tension between consumer protection and business clarity, sparking discussions about balancing these interests in evolving market practices.


Hollier v Rambler Motors serves as a reminder of the delicate balance between consumer protection and business interests in contract law. While previous dealings can inform expectations, the court prioritized the need for clear and express agreement, especially concerning limitations on liability. This case continues to influence interpretations of exclusion clauses, emphasizing the importance of transparent communication and ensuring consumers understand the terms they are agreeing to in each transaction.

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