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Spurling v Bradshaw – 1956

February 26, 2024
Micheal James

Jurisdiction / Tag(s): UK Law

Introduction to Spurling v Bradshaw – 1956

In 1956, the English Court of Appeal delivered a landmark judgement in Spurling v Bradshaw, significantly impacting the legal landscape around exclusion clauses and bailment. The case centered around a London warehouse company, J Spurling Ltd, and a customer, Mr. Andrew Bradshaw, who entrusted them with storing his precious barrels of orange juice. The orange juice’s unfortunate spoiling, coupled with Spurling Ltd’s attempt to avoid liability through an exemption clause, ignited a legal battle that redefined both fairness in contract terms and the responsibilities of warehousemen.

Facts of the Case

  • Spurling Ltd operated a warehouse in East London, offering storage services to various clients.
  • Mr. Bradshaw, owner of seven barrels of orange juice, sought Spurling Ltd’s services to safely store his valuable citrus treasure.
  • Upon handing over his barrels, Bradshaw received a receipt containing Spurling Ltd’s storage conditions, including a crucial clause: “We are not liable for any losses … even negligence.”
  • Bradshaw, presumably focused on ensuring his orange juice’s security, seemingly signed the receipt without deeply scrutinizing the fine print.
  • Time passed, and unfortunately, Bradshaw’s orange juice dreams turned sour. When he went to collect his barrels, they were spoiled and unusable, a citrusy tragedy.
  • Bradshaw, understandably dissatisfied, sought compensation from Spurling Ltd for the ruined orange juice.
  • Spurling Ltd, however, refused responsibility, citing the exemption clause within their storage agreement. They argued that regardless of any negligence on their part, the clause absolved them of liability.

Arguments of the Parties

  • Spurling Ltd:
    • Armed with the seemingly foolproof exemption clause, Spurling Ltd confidently denied any liability for the spoiled orange juice.
    • They emphasized that Bradshaw had accepted their storage conditions, including the clause, by signing the receipt.
    • In their view, the clause was clear and unambiguous, leaving no room for interpretation or objection.
  • Bradshaw:
    • Bradshaw, facing a bitter loss, challenged Spurling Ltd’s reasoning on several fronts.
    • He argued that Spurling Ltd had been negligent in their care of the barrels, leaving them exposed to elements that ultimately led to their spoilage.
    • More importantly, Bradshaw contested the fairness and enforceability of the exemption clause. He contended that it was hidden within the receipt’s fine print, not brought to his proper attention, and therefore, shouldn’t bind him.

Court’s Holding and Reasoning

The Court of Appeal, delivering a judgement that resonated throughout the legal world, sided with Mr. Bradshaw and held Spurling Ltd liable for the ruined orange juice. Lord Denning, in his famous and influential opinion, established the now-iconic “red hand rule.” This rule stipulated that the more unreasonable an exclusion clause is, the greater the notice that must be given to the other party. In this case, the court found that the clause was hidden away in the receipt and not sufficiently brought to Bradshaw’s attention, rendering it unenforceable.

Lord Denning

Moreover, the court acknowledged Spurling Ltd’s breach of their implied term of a contract of bailment, which obligated them to take reasonable care of the entrusted goods. Leaving the barrels exposed and ultimately causing their spoilage constituted a clear violation of this duty.

Analysis and Impact

Spurling v Bradshaw stands as a significant milestone in English contract law, particularly concerning exclusion clauses and consumer protection. The case’s impact can be felt in several key areas:

  • The Rise of the Red Hand Rule: The case established the “red hand rule” as a crucial principle in assessing the enforceability of exclusion clauses. This rule serves as a safeguard against unfair hidden clauses, ensuring that consumers are properly informed about potential limitations on their rights.
  • Emphasis on Fairness and Transparency: Spurling v Bradshaw highlighted the importance of fairness and transparency in contract terms. Businesses can no longer rely on obscurely worded or hidden clauses to escape responsibility for their actions. Clear and conspicuous communication of contractual terms became paramount.
  • Protection of Consumers: The case strengthened consumer protection in the realm of contracts. The ruling empowered consumers to challenge potentially unfair clauses and hold businesses accountable for their actions.
  • Clarification of Bailment Duties: The case also clarified the duties of care owed by warehousemen to their customers. Spurling Ltd’s negligence in handling Bradshaw’s goods served as a reminder of the responsibilities entrusted to businesses safeguarding others’ property.


Spurling v Bradshaw remains a landmark case in legal history, shaping the legal landscape around exclusion clauses and bailment. It serves as a testament to the importance of fairness and transparency in contractual agreements. The “red hand rule” continues to guide courts in determining the enforceability of exclusion clauses, protecting consumers from hidden pitfalls and ensuring informed consent. Spurling v Bradshaw also serves as a valuable reminder for businesses to prioritize clear communication of terms and conditions, upholding their responsibilities towards entrusted goods, and ultimately, fostering a just and balanced contractual environment for all parties involved.

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